Research Team Inc.
P.O. Box 400127
Cambridge, MA 02140 (USA)
LAB REPORT #122
EDMONTON, ALBERTA, CANADA - 1999
A 7-circle formation, overall length
191 feet, in thistle-infested barley field. Radial lay of crop in
all circles w/counter-clockwise perimeter ring underneath top lay.
Visible apical node elongation and multiple expulsion cavities in
2nd & 3rd nodes. Deep triangular hole found in small, northern circle.
Multiple reports of anomalous aerial light phenomena in area at
time circles thought to have formed; cell-phone failure occurred
Two northernmost circles & center and western circle of Edmonton
formation. Photo: Rusty Manuel, 9/22/99
Triangular hole, about 1 ft. deep, found by field team in center of small,
most northerly circle in formation. Photo: J. Arndt
Research Team Inc.
P.O. Box 400127
Cambridge, MA 02140 (USA)
LAB REPORT #122
Pinelandia Biophysical Lab
Farm, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
September 14, 1999
30, October 1-2, 1999
(Hordeum vulgare) and soils
and Mike Arndt (CCCRN Representatives)
large (100' diameter) center circle with six adjacent smaller
(from 36' to 19' diameter) circles. A counter-clockwise ring
of flattened barley, ranging in width from18" around the center
circle to 6" around the smallest circle, was found around the
edges of all 7 circles, underneath a superimposed layer of radially-laid
crop--this in all 7 circles. The uppermost layer of crop contained
many partially-downed plants with severely bent nodes, in the
range of 40-120 degrees. A triangular "crack" was found in the
precise geometric center of the most northerly circle, 6" long
to each side, into which a steel bar could be easily inserted
up to a depth of 36" (see Figs. 1-4 for details).
Fig. 1: Diagram of Edmonton (1999)
crop formation showing measurements.
Fig. 2: Diagram showing multiple layers of flattened
crop and directions of flow, with field notes.
A few strips of plants were
laid in the reverse direction of the primary radial lay: these areas
are shown as dotted lines in the diagram.
In the center circle there was a small mound of fresh earth, about
12 inches (30 cm) across, which looked as if it had erupted from
below. The edges of the fresh earth lay on top of some of the downed
crop, indicating that it spilled there after the plants were flattened.
The plants swirled around this mini eruption in a semi-circular
flow. There were a few more, smaller, mounds of earth in the circles,
but we saw no associated variation in the crop lay in these places.
In the small northernmost circle a three-way crack and hole in the
ground was found at the center of the radially-laid crop.
Fig. 3: Ms. Arndt's diagram illustrating how crop
was laid in three distinct layers in each of the
7 circles, and her field notes (below).
(a) A concentric ring of flattend
crop defines the edge of each circle. Width of this ring in
the large center circle is about 18 inches (45 cm); in the
smallest circles the ring is about 6 inches (15 cm) wide.
(b) Most of the remaining plants within the rings were flattened
radially, from the center out toward the edge, laid straight
and close to the soil. These plants were laid over those in
the concentric rings.
(c) The field is heavily infested with Canadian thistle, most
of which is flattened hard to the ground along with the barley.
Much of it was turning brown and drying out, as if dead. None
of the flattened thistle had started to grow back upwards
toward the sun. The field was sprayed with Roundup weed-killer
on 9/21, about 10 days prior to sampling.
(d) Some plants (perhaps 10-25% of the barley, but less that
1% of the thistle) were left semi- standing, with many severely-kinked
stem nodes bent at angles from 40-120 degrees. The standing
thistle plants were not obviously deformed and were still
green and apparently thriving. A few young thistle plants
(about 4 inches tall) grew vigorously in the formation.
(e) Some wild oats in the field were also left semi-standing,
in which we observed many expulsion cavities.
Fig. 4: Diagram and details
of triangular hole found in center of small northern circle.
In the geometric center of Circle "A" (19 ft. diam., most northerly
circle) a triangular crack, filled with loose finely-crumbled soil,
was discovered. The firmly-packed surrounding clay appears to be cut
away in three flat planes, sloping downward about 30 degrees. Each
plane is about 6 in. to a side. Depth of hole measured to 3 ft.
Actual barley seed-head pulled out of hole, with long "beards" intact, and with dirt in between and adhering to beards.
Photo: J. Arndt.
When preparing to photograph the hole, fieldworker Judy Arndt
discovered a barley plant seed-head which had fallen into (or
been sucked into?) the hole, top-down. It was buried to a depth
of at least 12 inches. The long "beards" on barley seed-heads
not only fan out, they have serrated edges--tiny barbs which
normally catch at your skin should you try to rub the beards
backward (from the ends toward the base). Such a seed-head would
not easily fall, beards first, into a small crack in the ground.
It appears that this hole must have been at least 2 inches wide,
and 12 inches deep, when the seed-head went into the hole. Further,
the maturity and freshness of the seed-head indicates that it
is the same age (same degree of maturity) as those attached
to the flattened plants in the formation, indicating that it
became embedded in the hole at the time the circles were created.
How this happened, without breaking the fragile "beards," is
(holes blown out at the plant stem nodes) were found in 68%
of the 71 plant sample sets (approx. 710 plants) taken inside
the three sampled circles in this formation;
- These expulsion cavities were
found not only in the apical (first stem node beneath the seed-head)
and penultimate (second stem node beneath the seed-head) nodes,
but also in the third stem nodes--the first time that this
degree of plant damage has been seen in crop formation samples
examined in this laboratory (see Fig. 7);
- No expulsion cavities (0%) were
found in the 23 control plant sets examined (approx. 230
- Node expansion levels in all
of the 71 plant sample sets taken inside the formation were significantly
higher (p < 0.01) than the overall control level;
- The highest mean value of plant-stem
node expansion (+109%) occurred in the smallest circle (19' diameter),
a situation we have often documented in other formations made
up of multiple, variously-sized circles (see Fig. 9);
- An 8-day germination test disclosed
no significant growth differences between the formation and control
seedlings; this absence of an effect on the formation seeds
is thought to be due to the fact that the plants in this case
were at, or very near, harvest maturity;
- A minimal increase (0.6-1.3 mg/g-soil)
in volume of magnetic particles was found in the formation soils
( the maximum level which can be expected in normal soils is 0.4
- (The radial distribution (45-degree
intervals) of magnetic particles in the soil in the large center
circle (Circle "C") disclosed an undulating, or crude "wave" type
pattern. Since the plant node-expansion levels in this circle
were significantly higher than in the controls (due to exposure
of the formation plants to the heating component [probably microwaves]
of the energy system involved) and were also relatively uniform
throughout the circle (no particular pattern of node length increase
inside the circle)--and since the volume of magnetic material
in the soil was greater than normal (due to strong magnetic fields
associated with the causative energy system) but was distributed
in a wave-type pattern (see Fig. 10), we again have evidence of
a causative mechanism comprised of multiple discreet, and probably
Results and Discussion:
Large numbers of sample sets were taken at precise locations in
three of the seven circles: Circle "A," a 19'-diameter northerly
circle, Circle "B," a 36'-diameter northerly circle, and Circle
"C," the large 100'-diameter center circle (see Figs. 5, 6). A
total of 71 plant sample-sets (approx. 10 plants/sample or 710
plants total) and 23 plant control-sets (approx. 230 plants total)
were examined. One control set was highly aberrant and was not
included in this analysis. (Click on diagrams below to enlarge)
Fig. 5: Field sampling diagram for Circle "C"
(100 ft.-diam. center circle)
and Controls #1-16. [KS-04-176]
Fig. 6: Field sampling diagram for Circles "A" (19
ft.-diam.) and "B" (36 ft.-diam.) and Controls 17 through 24.
The most obvious physical change to the sample plants from inside
the three circles was the presence of massive numbers of expulsion
cavities at the plant stem nodes--occurring in this formation
not only at the apical and penultimate nodes, but also in the
third node below the seed-head (see Fig. 7). These expulsion cavities
are caused as the moisture inside the plant nodes expands rapidly,
due to exposure to very brief bursts of intense heat, causing
the inelastic fibers of the older plant stems to burst open at
the nodes as the steam escapes.
Fig. 7: Node-elongation and expulsion cavities in 5 plants from inside the large circle, compared to 5 control plants sampled 75 ft. south of formation. This was one of the first cases in which multiple expulsion cavities were found in a single plant stem, with all--or nearly all--of the nodes affected down to the stem base.
In many crop formations which have occurred in mature crop we
have noted similar holes at the apical (first) and to a lesser
extent the penultimate (second) nodes; this event is the first
in which we have found expulsion cavities all the way down the
plant stem to the third node. We also noted that in some of the
plant samples which displayed multiple expulsion cavities, the
seed-heads were missing (see Fig. 8); we speculate, here, that
these seed-heads may have been either weakened by exposure to
the energy system responsible for causing the multiple expulsion
cavities found in their stems, and subsequently have fallen off,
or perhaps were literally "blown" off at the time the formation
Fig. 8: (a) Lab photo showing expulsion cavities in first three nodes beneath
seed-head of sample (S-42), from Circle "B." Even the 4th node,
at the base of the plant, is affected.
Fig 8: (b) Lab photo showing seed-head from another Circle "B" sample (on left), compared to control (on right). This sample (S-47) was missing seeds and "beards" which had either been blown off stem, or weakened to the point where they fell off after, or while, circle formed.
The node length changes found in plant stems in each sampled circle
are summarized in Fig. 9, with the percent (%) change relative
to the controls indicated above each bar.
Fig. 9: Apical Node Elongation in Sampled Circles "A" (19' diam.), "B" (36' diam.), and "C" (100' diam. center circle) Compared to Mean Node Length of Controls
[Note that in this formation, as in several others examined,
the node-length increase is greatest in the plants from the smallest circle,
and decreases as circle-diameter increases.]
All three sampled circles disclosed very significant node length
increases (from +65% to +109%). It was interesting to find that
Circle "A" (the sampled circle with the smallest diameter) had
the greatest node expansion, a fact which reflects data from other
formations examined in this laboratory over the years. In this
smaller-diameter circle the angular momentum, or vorticity, of
the plasma vortex would be expected to be much greater than that
within either of the larger sampled circles, a fact which is pertinent,
later, when discusing the volume of magnetic particles found in
In the 100'-diameter center circle (Circle "C") radial samples
were taken at 45 degree intervals around the formation; the node
length data in Fig. 10(a) shows a relatively uniform distribution
of the energy components which produce node expansion. At the
same sampling locations in Circle "C," however the soil samples,
as seen in Fig. 10(b) below, reveal a distribution of magnetic
material that was very non-uniform. The magnetic particle data
produces the appearance of an undulating pattern, with maximum
deposits of magnetic material at the primary compass directions.
Fig. 10 (a): Distribution of Node-Length Increases Along Radii of Circle "C" (100'-diameter), Revealing a Relatively Uniform Distribution (KS-04-176).
Fig 10 (b): Distribution of Magnetic Material in Circle "C" (100'-diameter) Soils,
Revealing a Rough "wave-like" Pattern (KS-04-176).
The differences in node-length increase and magnetic particle
distribution, illustrated above, demonstrate once again that multiple,
probably interacting energies are involved in the crop circle creation
process. Perhaps what we are seeing here is a resonance-effect
between the cloud of magnetic particles in the vortex energy system
and the Earth's magnetic field. The uniform distribution of node
length changes and the undulating pattern of the magnetic particle
distribution, both found in Circle "C," is further evidence that
the energies responsible for the node expansions operates entirely
independently of the energies distributing the magnetic material.
An 8-day germination test disclosed no significant growth differences
between the seeds from the circle plants and those from the control
plants. Since this formation occurred late in the growing season,
the seeds were at--or very near--harvest maturity and would, therefore,
be less likely to be influenced by the formation energies.
If, as suggested from the node length data for Circle "A," the
energy system responsible for creating this circle was rotating
at a much higher angular momentum (as would be expected), then
one might expect this circle to contain the minimum volume of
magnetic material. We have found in the analyses of many other
formations that the distribution of magnetic material (see Fig.
11) within and outside a circle vortex area follows the physical
principles of centrifugal forces: that is, the smaller-diameter
vortices with higher rotational energy deposit the least amount
of magnetic material inside the downed-crop area--because it has
been "thrown" outside the confines of the visibly-downed region.
Fig. 11: Photomicrograph (x 100) of Magnetic Material--Both Spherical and
Partially Ablated--Adhering to Soil Chunks (KS-04-176).
[Note melted ridge of magnetic material at lower arrow.]
In Table 1 the magnetic drag data from soil samples taken within
the three circles and control regions are summarized; as expected,
the smallest circle, (Circle "A") contained the least amount of
magnetic material of the three circles sampled.
Mean Levels of Magnetic Material in Soils
In and Around Crop Formation KS-04-176
The plant and soil abnormalities
discovered in the laboratory analyses of this well-documented
and carefully sampled crop formation strongly support the presence
of a complex, thermodynamically-unstable atmospheric plasma system
as a causative agency; in our opinion there is no possibility
that this crop event was manually created.
| W.C. Levengood
Pinelandia Biophysical Lab
The field team reported that a local visitor to the formation during
the sampling procedure (Sept. 30 - Oct. 1) experienced battery failure
of his cell phone while inside the large center circle; he was able
later, however, to use the phone after standing outside the formation
for about 5 minutes. Additionally, there were reports (by the farmer
and his wife and by another driver on the nearby road) of unusual
aerial light phenomena over the area where, subsequently, the 7-circle
formation was discovered. It should also be noted that multiple,
unconnected, circles had been found the previous year (1998) by
the farmer's wife while harvesting, but these were not reported.