Research Team Inc.
P.O. Box 400127
Cambridge, MA 02140 (USA)
LAB REPORT #79
LOGAN, UTAH - August, 1996
Formed early in August in barley, this
was the first crop formation found in Utah in recent times. Overall
length approximately 190 ft., large circle 58 ft.-diameter, smaller
circle 30-ft. diameter. Crop lay was more radial than spiral. Small
triangular holes were found in the centers of both circles and at
end of long path heading South.
Light phenomena were observed & photographed (Addendum).
Top photo: Mitch Mascaro, The Herald Journal; bottom
photo: Con Olsen.
Research Team Inc.
P.O. Box 400127
Cambridge, MA 02140 (USA)
LAB REPORT #79
March 16, 1997
Pinelandia Biophysical Lab
|Seth Alder Farm,
|First or second
week of August, 1996
|August 15, 1996
|August 25, 1996
|Barley stems and
heads (Hordeum vulgare), soils
|Todd and Lisa Weakland,
|Two circles (30.4'
and 58' diam.) w/connecting path, additional pathway to the
south, & associated triangular pathways around large circle
(see Fig. 1). Overall length approximately 190 '. Crop lay
was more radial than spiral, and was chaotic in appearance.
Three small triangular holes were found: in the center of
each circle and at the end of the southern pathway.
Close-up showing chaotic appearance of crop lay in 30.4'-diam. circle.
Photo taken a few days after discovery, by Con Olsen.
Ground shot in larger, 58'-diameter circle. Ragged, irregular circle edges
indicate turbulence. Photo: Con Olsen.
- Node expansion levels were found
in the range of 15-65%,
relative to the controls;
- Expulsion cavity incidence found
to be as high as 40%;
none found in the controls;
- Seed weights and seedling growth
in plants along north radius of large circle;
- Altered soil structure indicated
by X-ray crystallography;
- Soil alteration simulated by
exposing control soil to microwaves.
When examining the summarized node-length data it should be kept
in mind that any set of samples that has a mean node-length change
greater than 15% (relative to the "normal" control plants) is statistically
significant. When data is statistically significant one can be confident
that there is a greater than 95% probability that the data are anomalous,
relative to the control samples. [This level of significance is
accepted in scientific research and in all scientific journals as
Figure 2 shows node-length (Nl) data from plants sampled along the
north and south radii in the large, 58'-diameter circle. The fact
that the curves produced by the data are similar in shape, but not
the same, indicates that the energy profiles which caused the node-length
changes were similar along the radii, but that the magnitudes of
energy delivery were quite different. This was also apparent when
we examined the plant nodes for the presence of expulsion cavities.
From past studies we know that a very rapid rate of heating will
cause the plant stem nodes to literally blow open to form what we
have termed "expulsion cavities" (see Fig. 4), an effect which is
apparently unique in crop formation plants (they are rarely found
in control plants). Expulsion cavities are more likely to be found
in mature plants which have less elasticity in their fibrous epidermis,
than in younger, less-developed plants.
When plant nodes are subjected to the heating element of the crop
formation energy system the moisture inside the plant node turns
to steam and internal pressure builds up; if this occurs at a rapid
rate the node tissues rupture and the pressure is relieved through
the formation of an expulsion cavity. When expulsion cavities are
present (usually in the penultimate or second node beneath the seed-head),
node elongation (usually in the apical, or first node beneath the
seed-head) is likely to be less. This occurs because, in plants
in which the pressure builds up to just below the critical value
for rupturing the expanded node tissue, the expansion continues
and no expulsion cavities form.
If we examine all the north radius node-length data from the large
circle we find (see Table 1) that the overall node expansion is
high, whereas the expulsion cavity level (the "safety-valve" effect)
is relatively low. On the other hand, the south radius data show
the opposite situation: that is, a low node expansion and a high
number of expulsion cavities. This implies that the rate of energy
transfer was more rapid along the south radius than along the north.
In other words, the rotation rate of the energy vortex was such
that the energy was not distributed uniformly throughout the large
We also found similar patterns of node-length changes and expulsion
(Fig. 3) in the plants taken from within the small circle. In the
Table 2 data we again see a tendency for the high/low, low/high
relationship between node elongation and expulsion cavity distributions
along the radii. Here, however, the north radius appears to have
been subjected to the higher rate of energy input, again resulting
in an increased number of expulsion cavities. This result simply
means that the organized plasmas operating within these two circle
regions were functioning in an independent manner.
In the past we have received anecdotal reports of visual changes
in the soils within crop circles; however, the Logan study if the
first instance in which we have been able to work directly with
a professional geologist (Ms. Diane Conrad, President, Meridian
Environmental Co., Salt Lake City, Utah). For details of Ms. Conrad's
investigation, see item #3 in "Details of Findings," below.
The plant node data indicate a localized, transient heating of the
plants. The level of this external energy input was sufficient to
produce significant node elongation, expulsion cavities, alterations
in seed weights and seedling growth. These results are consistent
with the concept of organized plasma vortices operating within dissipative,
chaotic structures as the causative agency of crop formations.
Since the energy influenced both the somatic and germinal tissues
of the plants, this formation must have occurred during a critical
interval in the development cycle of the crop.
Details of Findings:
When received at the laboratory the individual plant stems were
so broken up that it was necessary to combine the apical and penultimate
node measurements within each of the 37 sample sets. When we could
not tell where on the plant stem a node came from it was discarded
and not included in the analyses.
From the field-sampling diagram (Fig. 1) it can be seen that there
are three separate sections (or sampled areas) of importance within
this formation, namely the larger 58 ft.-diameter circle, the smaller
30.4 ft.-diameter circle, and the approximately 80 ft.-long pathways
extending north and south of the larger circle. Accordingly, each
will be discussed and the results compared.
1: Field-sampling diagram [KS-03-131]
Plant Stem Node Analyses
The node lengths were
measured using a metal scale graduated in 0.5 mm divisions
and a 6X loupe. This provided a 0.1 mm precision of measurement,
which is adequate for these purposes. Most node changes
in crop formation plants are expansive in nature, and in
the range of 0.5 up to 1-3 mm of increased length, relative
to the controls. From each sample set between 10-30 notes
were available for analyses. In addition to node lengths,
each sample set was carefully examined for the presence
of expulsion cavities. Fig.
2 shows the node-length changes as a percent-change
relative to the mean of the controls.
Fig. 2: Node-length increase along north
and south radii in 58 ft.-diameter circle.
The differences in node-length change here are thought
to be due not to the
total energy exposure but, rather, to the rate or
duration of the energy delivery.
It should be noted that the data points lie either on the
base (or at zero level) or above--that is, they are positive.
This means that the energy effect expanded the nodes. In
this and the following figures any node-length change greater
than 15% is statistically significant. Along the south radius
of the large circle only the nodes taken at 18 ft. south
of the center are expanded at a level of significance, whereas
node-sampling at 12, 18 and 24 ft. north of the center are
found to be elongated significantly.
The plants along the north radii of the large circle received
a much higher input of energy than did the plants along
the south radii. Further investigation reveals, however,
that the situation was more complex. If we look closely
at the frequency of expulsion cavities in relation to the
degree of node elongation we obtain a clearer understanding
of the energy distribution. Table 1 summarizes the degree
of node expansion and expulsion cavities along the north
and south radii in the 58 ft. diameter circle (mean node-length
change is the average of the five sampling locations shown
in Fig. 2); expulsion cavities were averaged within these
same sample groups.
Comparisons of mean node-length changes and expulsion cavities
along north & south radii in large, 58' diameter circle.
Node Length Changes
Here we observe a reciprocal type of relationship between
the two anatomical transformations in the plant stem nodes.
That is, when the node elongation is high (as in the north
radius) the expulsion cavity level is low--and, conversely,
in the south radius we find low node expansion with a high
incidence of expulsion cavities.
We have observed exactly this same situation in previous crop
formations. Here, the heat input rate along the north radius
was insufficient to form expulsion cavities in the majority
of the plants; consequently, the pressure was not released
and a greater degree of node elongation occurred. The differences
in node-length increase and expulsion cavity incidence along
the north and south radii are not due to the total amount
of energy delivered but, rather, to the rate of energy delivery.
Thus we are apparently observing the effects of an energy
vortex which rotates at a different rate in its path of fixed-point
rotation. The node-length changes and expulsion cavity incidence
at sampling points in the smaller, 30 ft.-diameter, circle
are shown in Fig. 3.
Fig. 3: Node-length increase and
expulsion cavity incidence in plants
from smaller, 30.4 ft.-diameter circle along south
radius [S12, S6],
at center , and along north radius [N6, N12].
Comparisons of mean node-length changes and expulsion cavities
along north & south radii in small, 30.4' diameter circle.
Node Length Changes
Here we again observe the low/high, high/low relationship
between the node- length changes and the expulsion cavity
incidence. Here, however, the north radius apparently received
the higher rate of energy input.
Plant samples taken down the long pathways of the formation
also disclosed significant node length increases and expulsion
cavities, but the data showed no consistent patterns, such
as were observed in the two circles.
Fig. 4: Explusion cavities (top photo) in barley plant stems in larger 58 ft.-diameter circle, compared to controls (bottom photo) taken 108 ft. east of formation.
(2) Seed Analyses
| Both seed weights and paper-roll
germinations were obtained from all of the sample sets. Seedling
data were recorded at 5 and 8-days germination. Analyses of
these data disclosed significant differences between the control
and formation samples. Sufficient sample sets were available
from the large circle to provide a statistical comparison (Table
3) of the seed development in the north and south radii.
Seed weights & precision germination results in the 58'-diameter
circle, compared with controls.
Weight Per 20 Seeds
Here we observe that the seeds from the plants along the north
radius of the large circle had significantly reduced seed-weights
and seedling growth. Cell damage would be expected to be greatest
where the heating was most prolonged: referring back to Table
1, we see that the plants along the north radius also displayed
the highest degree of node expansion. Both of these findings
indicate that heating was more prolonged along the north radius
than it was along the south radius, where the energy apparently
popped in and out much more rapidly.
It appears, also, that this formation occurred at a time in
the plant development cycle when the seeds were very sensitive
to the external plasma energies.
(3) X-ray Crystallography of Soil
| [This section of Lab Report
#79 has been re-written for the BLT web-site, in consultation
with Diane Conrad on 5/3/03.]
"Ms. Diane Conrad, a geologist who lived near the Logan, Utah
crop formation in 1996, was curious as to whether there might
be evidence in the soils which could provide additional proof
of the presence of external energy at the crop circle site.
Having written her Master's Thesis on heat effects in clay minerals
(utilizing X-ray diffraction analyses [XRD]), and aware that
exposure to external energies can alter the crystalline structure
of certain clay minerals and that such changes can be determined
through XRD examination, she decided to carry out a preliminary
investigation of the Logan, Utah cropcircle soils.
A soil sample was taken from within the Logan formation, about
5' west of the center of the larger circle, and a control approximately
100' west of the edge of the larger circle. After separating
out the clay minerals, the XRD analyses was carried out. A graph
is produced by the XRD equipment, with multiple peaks, each
of which represent specific clay minerals in the sample being
tested. In expandable clays, the width of this peak is measured
at half-height producing a value known as the Kubler Index (KI),
which is an indicator of degree of crystalline structure. The
lower the KI, the greater the degree of crystallinity (greater
ordering of the crystal lattice) in that specific clay mineral.
The soil sample from within the crop circle showed a pronounced
decrease in the Kubler Index (KI) of the illite peak, as compared
to the control (S=0.11; C=0.25), indicating increased crystallinity
in the circle sample (or exposure of this sample to external
heat or energy).
The control sample was divided into aliquots and, in at attempt
to replicate the observed decrease in KI in the Logan cropcircle
sample, one aliquot was heated in a conventional oven for ten
minutes at 93 C and a second aliquot for ten minutes at 287 C.
A third aliquot was microwaved for two minutes on "high" to
determine the effects of energy of different wavelengths on
the crystal structure of the illite component. In the control
aliquots heated to 287 C and microwaved, the KI was observed
to decrease--with the microwaved aliquot producing a KI most
similar (.07) to that of the original circle sample (.11).
These results, although very preliminary, indicate an increase
in the ordering of the crystalline structure of the illite fraction
of the clays in the Logan cropcircle soil--a change indicative
of exposure to external energy. Additionally, the change observed
in the circle sample was closely approximated by exposing control
soil to microwave radiation."
Therefore, in this preliminary XRD examination of crop circle soils,
we have an additional indication of the presence of external energies
and transient heating during the crop circle formation process.
| W.C. Levengood
Pinelandia Biophysical Lab
Our thanks to Diane Conrad, Consulting Geologist, Meridian Environmental
Co., Salt Lake City, Utah.
Five years after the Logan formation had occurred (and after this
Lab Report had been written) I heard about a young man from Salt
Lake City who had visited the Logan circles a week or two after
they were discovered and had a very unusual experience. Dave Rosenfeld
had never seen a crop circle before and, out of curiosity, he drove
to the Logan site to see a crop circle for himself. Arriving at
about 8 pm (just as it was getting dark) he and his girlfriend went
into the field and were amazed to observe multiple "small white
lights moving about the field" both over and near the formation.
These balls of light (BOLs) were perfectly spherical, some appearing
to be 2-3 inches in diameter and others more the "size of a baseball."
They noticed that "the closer they were, the brighter they were"
and that "the ones farther away were not only bigger, but more transparent,
or not as bright." They made no sound at all. Dave reported that
there were "about 20 of them at a time...like a whole herd of luminous
bubbles dancing around the field."
When Dave or his girlfriend tried to get closer to any of the lights
they would disappear, or move quickly away, "always keeping about
3 ft. away from either one of us." The BOLs, at times, moved very
fast, as if "interacting with each other" and "as if they were alive,"
never moving more than 15 ft. above the ground. The couple tried
to catch one of the BOLs, on one occasion attempting to "trap it
between us," but the BOLs just disappeared or would blink out when
either Dave or his girlfriend got "too close."
In another instance Dave tried to "fool" the light balls by turning
his back and pretending that he intended to leave the circle. After
walking a few feet he suddenly spun around, to see a very bright
light ball right behind his back. While chasing the light balls
Dave had the imprssion that the BOLS were "teasing us...some would
fly or float around us as if they were playing with us, or checking
us out; but if we got too close they would be gone instantly, like
a bubble popping."
After witnessing the light balls for awhile Dave went back to his
truck to get his camera and, upon his return to the field, attempted
to capture the BOLs in a number of photos with his Canon automatic
camera (Kodak 400 ASA film).
Light ball in Logan, Utah crop circle, one of dozens of clearly visible
"luminous bubbles" observed "dancing around the field" for at least an hour. Photo: Dave Rosenfeld
Only one photo came out, which shows a light ball about 2 yards
away from the camera lens and about 3 feet in the air. The BOL itself
was, according to Dave, perfectly spherical. The blurred streak
behind the BOL on the photo was not visible to the eye, although
Dave noted that the light balls which were close to him did seem
to react to the flash going off, and would "jerk" or make a quick
After an hour or more in the formation, the light balls "slowly
left us, blinking out a few at a time, or moving off in the distance
and fading out." Both Dave and his girlfriend had had a feeling
of playfulness throughout the encounter, as well as the distinct
impression of communication of some sort having taken place. For
Dave's full account click here.
This is the first account we know of in which witnesses both observed
visually and interacted over an extended period of time with light
balls in a crop formation--and obtained photographic evidence of
the experience. This report also supports other accounts of BOLs
and/or strange energy effects experienced in or near crop circles,
sometimes long after the crop circle formed.